Dog rabies vaccination is the only effective way to prevent a deadly disease. Since a sick animal poses a threat to humans, this vaccination is taken under the control of state authorities and is a mandatory measure in disadvantaged areas.
What is rabies in dogs
To understand the importance and necessity of vaccination will help knowledge about what rabies in dogs, its transmission and the consequences of infection.
Rabies is a disease that occurs with severe damage to the nervous system and, in the vast majority of cases, leads to death.
The virus is secreted with the saliva of an infected animal and enters the body of a pet at the moment of contact through wounds on the skin or mucous membranes.
Important! The most dangerous are bites to the head, in which a huge number of viruses very quickly reach the cerebral cortex. Fatal outcome can occur within 3-4 weeks after infection.
After the pathogen enters the tissue, it begins to migrate along the neurons of the cells, reaches the brain and spinal cord, causing irreversible changes in them.
Clinically, this is manifested by the following symptoms:
- excessive affection, followed by causeless aggression;
- desire for solitude;
- fear of bright light and water;
- sagging of the lower jaw;
- profuse salivation;
- eating inedible items.
Convulsions, paralysis develop gradually, exhaustion sets in. Since there is no cure for rabies, a fatal outcome is inevitable from blocking the respiratory center.
The main carriers of the disease are wild foxes, wolves and wild boars. In urban settings, stray cats and dogs, rats and bats play a large role in the spread of rabies.
Important! Rabies virus causes changes in the brain that suppress natural instincts. Wild animals cease to be afraid of people, go into the territory of settlements, make contact with people, are not afraid of touch. Such uncharacteristic behavior should immediately cause suspicion and serve as a reason for contacting a veterinary clinic, the Ministry of Emergencies or the trapping service
Rules for vaccinating dogs against rabies
The law of the Russian Federation provides for the mandatory vaccination of domestic dogs against rabies. This manipulation is carried out free of charge on the basis of state clinics of veterinary medicine. After it is held, the animal’s passport contains information about the vaccination date, the name of the drug, its series and expiration date.
Such a passport is an official document confirming the presence of vaccination, and its absence is considered a legitimate reason for refusing veterinary care. If such a dog showed unreasonable aggression towards a person or inflicted bodily harm on him, then they isolate him, observe him for 10 days, and in the absence of a clinical picture of rabies, he is forcibly vaccinated.
The rules for vaccinating dogs against rabies provide for the mandatory availability of vaccinations in the following cases:
- border crossing;
- participation in exhibitions and competitions;
- participation in breeding.
With the introduction of rabies quarantine in a particular region, veterinary specialists have the right to conduct an extraordinary treatment using a specific vaccine.
Important! Both public and private clinics should refuse admission to dogs not vaccinated against rabies, as this poses a threat to staff and other clients. If in case of violation of this rule people are affected, then the veterinarian is subject to criminal liability.
Pros and Cons of Vaccination
Speaking of rabies, considering the pros and cons of vaccination is, to put it mildly, stupid and frivolous. No inconvenience and complications associated with vaccination, do not block the danger of infection with this deadly disease.
Often the cause of infection of dogs is the ignorance and negligence of owners who are confident that this disaster will never affect them. Then it turns into tears for the loss of a pet, health problems, trouble with the law, and so on.
Important! If in most cases in animals vaccination passes without consequences, then in humans the introduction of an anti-rabies vaccine causes multiple complications, manifested by headaches, nervous and mental disorders, impaired coordination, decreased visual acuity, muscle pain.
Dog rabies vaccines
Inactivated rabies vaccines in domestic and foreign dogs are used as prophylactic drugs.
- Defensor 3 is a suspension for subcutaneous and intramuscular injection, administered in an amount of 1 ml, regardless of the weight of the animal. Immunity is formed after 21 days and lasts for 36 months. However, in disadvantaged areas, revaccination is carried out once a year.
- "Nobivak Rabies" produced in the form of a suspension, administered s / c or IM once a year, starting at the age of three months. In a disadvantaged area, the first vaccination is recommended at 8 weeks.
- Rabikan It is a vaccine that creates a stable immunity 5-7 days after use. With a single administration of the drug, revaccination is carried out every year, and after double use it prevents infection for two years.
- "Multican 8" It is a complex preparation intended for the prevention of rabies, adeno-, parvo- and coronovirus, plague and leptospirosis of carnivores. Dosage varies from 1 to 2 ml, depending on the weight of the animal. Revaccination is carried out annually.
- Dipentavak is a complex vaccine used to prevent infection with rabies, hepatitis, leptospirosis, enteritis, plague and adenovirus. It is administered twice with an interval of 14-21 days, starting at two months of age. Further processing is carried out once a year.
Important! You should not use complex rabies vaccines without consulting a veterinarian. Such drugs are introduced only after a thorough examination, assessment of the state of immunity and under the subsequent supervision of a specialist.
Age for first vaccination
There are 2 vaccination schemes for rabies puppies up to a year.
- In the disease-disadvantaged area, the optimal age for the first vaccination is 2.5-3 months, before the change of primary teeth, followed by revaccination after 30 days. And although some breeders note that the vaccine, introduced during the change of teeth, negatively affects the color of enamel, the feasibility of its use is fully justified by the high degree of risk of infection.
- In safe areas, the first vaccination is allowed for puppies after a tooth change at the age of six months. In this case, the next revaccination is carried out after a year and then once a year during the following years of life.
Important! You should not combine the first vaccine against rabies with the introduction of a vaccine against plague, enteritis and hepatitis, as this will create a strong burden on the puppy's still weak immune system and can provoke the disease.
Preparing for a rabies vaccine
Properly prepared for vaccination makes it possible to minimize the risk of complications and maintain the health of the pet.
To this end, you must adhere to the following rules:
- a week before vaccination, deworming is necessary;
- within 7-10 days before visiting the clinic, do not make long journeys, do not change the diet, protect the animal from stress;
- in the morning on the day of vaccination, take measurements of body temperature;
- a day before vaccination, transfer the pet to a light diet;
- Drink plenty of water on the day of vaccination.
Important! It is not advisable to administer the vaccine during estrus in females.
What to do after vaccination
After the introduction of rabies vaccine, many veterinarians recommend that owners stay with their pets in the clinic for 20-30 minutes. During this period, allergic reactions to the drug may occur, and the doctor on the spot will be able to decide what to do after vaccination to alleviate the condition of the dog.
If the animal is in a disadvantaged zone, then you should refrain from walking for three weeks until immunity to this disease is formed.
If there is no immediate threat of infection, then you can walk with your pet, while avoiding intense physical exertion and communication with other animals.
Despite the fact that bathing after vaccination is not contraindicated, it should be postponed if possible for 2-3 weeks to prevent hypothermia and unnecessary stress. It is important to provide the dog with proper nutrition at this time.
Contraindications for rabies vaccine
Important! Vaccination is given only to healthy animals. Any ailment is the reason for the postponement of the vaccination until complete recovery.
Other contraindications for rabies vaccine are:
- recent operations, injuries, thermal or chemical burns, poisoning;
- lack of body weight in puppies before the first vaccination;
- infectious diseases;
Pregnancy, estrus, and lactation are not direct contraindications to vaccination, but if possible, the procedure is best rescheduled.
Duration and frequency of revaccination
The duration and frequency of revaccination depends on the choice of the vaccine and the well-being of the area.
The instructions for the drug indicate the time during which the dog will be insured against infection with rabies. Usually this period is from 1 year to three years. But in the event of an outbreak, veterinary specialists can conduct unscheduled vaccinations, regardless of previous treatments.
In disadvantaged areas, rabies vaccines are on the list of mandatory annual preventative treatments.
Statistics show that most animals tolerate vaccination well. Significantly less in response to vaccination can be observed:
- short-term increase in temperature to 39.5 ©;
- a single digestive disorder in the form of diarrhea or vomiting;
- loss of appetite or refusal of food on the day of the manipulation;
- the formation of painless swelling at the injection site;
- lethargy and lethargy, persisting for 1-2 days.
These clinical symptoms do not require medical attention, as they are an acceptable norm. But if there is a tendency to increase temperature and worsen the general condition of the animal, then you should contact the clinic of veterinary medicine.
Possible complications and side effects
The occurrence of possible complications and side effects after vaccination may be due to the following factors:
- use of a poor-quality drug;
- the introduction of a vaccine without observing the rules of antiseptics;
- the presence of an infectious disease in the animal in a latent stage;
- the specific reaction of the dog to vaccine components.
The most serious complication is an allergic reaction, which occurs in the form of a rash, redness and itching of the skin and mucous membranes, swelling and difficulty breathing. Typically, these symptoms develop in the first minutes after the injection, when the dog is still in the clinic, and the doctor can alleviate her condition by administering antihistamines. In severe cases, a dropper may be needed to relieve intoxication.
The warning signs that appear after vaccination and require the help of a specialist are:
- progressive increase in body temperature over 39.5 ©;
- repeated vomiting and diarrhea;
- cyanosis of visible mucous membranes;
- nervous phenomena in the form of tremors, convulsions and paralysis;
- profuse salivation;
- secretion of serous exudate from the nasal cavity or eyes;
- growing lethargy and weakness;
- complete lack of appetite.
Another dangerous complication is soreness and redness of the swelling at the injection site. If for 2-3 days it becomes hot and begins to increase in size, then this indicates the development of purulent inflammation, the treatment of which should be carried out by a specialist in veterinary medicine.